Climate and the geography of a specific area impacts on the people’s character, traditions and even their fears and wishes! Totally, Iran is a dry land and worrying about drought has accompanied Iranians during millenniums. They have stimulated paradise to a vast garden full of trees and two intersected rivers and they weaved this green garden on their carpets to bring paradise to their houses.
Almost all of old Persian gardens are built based on the same structure, named “Chahar Baghi” style (four gardens), which means that the garden is usually divided into four main sectors by two main water ditches and a pavilion is at the center. Long standing cypresses, beautiful plane trees, cobblestone paths and little blue pools are some elements usually seen in a Persian garden. This is how paradise is pictured in holy books like Quran, Torah and ancient Zoroastrian texts.
Many Persian gardens have been constructed in cities of Iran, especially the cities with a dry climate and the people could enjoy the cool water and the tree shade during hot summer days. These gardens were usually houses of the Persian kings and governors. Nine of Persian gardens have been inscribed as a world chain heritage site by UNESCO:
The oldest remains of a Persian garden is the leftovers of intersected ditches of Cyrus the great’s garden (550 B.C.) in Pasargadae (in Fars province), which shows the antiquity of “Chahar baghi” style.
"Fin Garden" in Kashan have been built on remains of ancient Sialk civilization, in 1852 B.C and it is constructed based on “Chahar bagh” style with main ditches dividing the garden into four sectors and a two story beautiful pavilion is in the middle of the garden.
|"Fin Garden" in Kashan.|
"Dowlat Abad Garden" of Yazd (built in 1747 B.C), is another Persian garden which is famous for its beautiful pavilion with a tall wind-catcher on top. The building is located on the corner and a long water ditch, surrounded by trees, passes all along the garden.
"Shazdeh Garden" of Kerman (built in 1880 B.C) is located in the middle of barrens and looks like a green oasis in the heart of the desert. The water is supplied by Qantas and a long ditch flows all along the garden. This stair garden is known for showing a beautiful connection between Persian architecture and water.
"Abbas Abad Garden" in Behshahr (north of Iran) has been constructed during Safavid era (1611 B.C) ordered by Shah Abbas and it includes a vast lake surrounded by many old trees and a brick pavilion in the middle.
"Eram Garden" is constructed during 19th century in Shiraz, known as the city of gardens. "Eram Garden" is a fabulous place for its Orange trees and tall cypresses, especially during spring when the Orange blossoms change the whole city into a perfume factory! The two-story pavilion in "Eram Garden" shows the combination of Persian and European architecture style.
"Chehel Sutun Garden" (40 columns) has been built in Isfahan during Safavid era. The stunning pavilion in the garden has 20 columns and the big pool in front of the pavilion shows the reflected image of this beautiful building and its columns. That is why they call this Garden Chehel sutun (40 columns). The big pool is surrounded by old plane trees.
"Pahlavan Pour Garden" is built in Mehriz of Yazd province, by a businessman named Ali pahlavan Pour, during Qajarid era. A beautiful adobe pavilion is built on the main axis of the garden and the trees are watered by a long main ditch and canals, originating from three different Qantas.
|The adobe pavilion in "Pahlavan pour Garden".|
"Akbariyeh Garden" is constructed in Birjand city, in eastern Iran, during Qajarid era. The main pavilion is ornamented by great Persian brickworks and the long-standing trees give an ancient face to the whole garden.
|"Akbariye Garden" in Birjand.|
There are many more fabulous gardens in Iran that were not mentioned in this article. Walking in a Persian garden gives you information about Iranian architecture and the pleasant image of being in paradise for a while! Uppersia tours, like Iran photography tour usually include visiting the Persian gardens in each city.